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Milestones in Karlsruhe's history

Karlsburg Durlach
Karlsburg Durlach
776 First documentary evidence of the village of Knielingen - now a part of Karlsruhe.
1094 Founding of the Monastery at Gottesaue.
1191/92 The Staufers grant Durlach a town charter.
1565 The margraves of Baden move their residence from Pforzheim to Durlach.
1689 Durlach is destroyed in the Palatinate War of Succession.
1715 The margrave Karl Wilhelm of Baden-Durlach founds the city of Karlsruhe by laying the foundation stone of his new castle in the Hardt Forest.
1717 The court of the margravate of Baden-Durlach moves to Karlsruhe.
  1771 In the absence of a male heir, the margravate of Baden-Baden falls to the margravate of Baden-Durlach, which is enlarged accordingly.
  1797 Friedrich Weinbrenner begins planning an expansion of the city and the neoclassical buildings for which it will become famous.
  1806 Karlsruhe becomes the capital and court of the grand duchy of Baden established by Napoleon.
  1817 Johann Gottfried Tulla begins work on the regulation of the river Rhine. Karl Friedrich Drais of Sauerbronn presents his "running machine" (or "Draisine") - a precursor of today's bicycle.
Pyramide im 19. Jahrhundert
The Pyramid in the 19th century
1818 The grand duchy of Baden is given Germany's most progressive constitution.
1822 Karlsruhe's Ständehaus becomes the first purpose-built parliament building in Germany.
1823 Erection of a Pyramid over the grave of the city's founding father, Karl Wilhelm, on the Marktplatz.
1825 Founding of the polytechnic, Germany's first higher technical college which became a university in 1967.
1844 Carl Benz, the automobile pioneer, is born in Mühlburg, now a part of Karlsruhe.
1846 Christian Hengst founds Germany's first voluntary fire brigade in Durlach.
  1849 The Baden Revolution brings an elected government to power. After just a few weeks as Germany's first republic, however, Prussian troops depose the new government from Karlsruhe and reinstate the grand duke Leopold.
Automobilpionier Carl Benz
Automobile pioneer Carl Benz
1854 The Academy of Fine Arts is founded.
1885/88 Heinrich Hertz discovers electromagnetic waves at the higher technical college.
1891 Founding of Karlsruhe's first football club (KFV).
1893 Germany's first girls' grammar school opens its doors.
1901 With a population of 100,000, Karlsruhe now ranks among Germany's big cities. The Rhine river port is opened.
1909 Fritz Haber becomes the first person to synthesize ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen. Karlsruhe's Phoenix Football Club becomes German champion.
1912 The Jewish footballer, Gottfried Fuchs (KFV), scores 10 goals for Germany in a match against Russia, which Germany wins 16:0. No player for the national team has since been able to surpass this goal-scoring record.
1913 Completion of today's central station.
  1918 Following the First World War and the revolution which followed it, Baden becomes a republic and Karlsruhe loses its function as a court and becomes a demilitarized border town.
  1929 Walter Gropius oversees the building of the Dammerstock estate. The "Rheinstrandbad" is opened.
  1933 The National Socialists seize power, toppling the democratically elected city council. The new regime begins its policy of persecution.
  1938 The town of Durlach becomes part of Karlsruhe.
  1940 Deportation of 945 Jewish residents to the deportation camp at Gurs in France.
  1945 At the end of the Second World War unleashed by the Nazis, 35% of the city is in ruins.
Beseitigung der Kriegstrümmer
Removing war debris
1946 The first democratic election after the war and the beginning of reconstruction, trying to preserve as much of the old city as possible.
1948 The Karlsruhe-based publisher, Karl Fritz, launches the Bambi Film Prize. The annual awards ceremony attracts international film stars to the city right up until 1964.
1950/51 The Federal Supreme Court and Federal Constitutional Court are opened. Karlsruhe becomes Germany's seat of justice. It now has a population of over 200,000.
1955 Inauguration of the Wildpark Stadium. Karlsruher SC, the product of a merger of Mühlburg football club and FC Phoenix, becomes Germany's national cup winner - a title it retains in 1956 too. Karlsruhe and Nancy enter into one of the first Franco-German town-twinning agreements.
1956 The fan-shaped city becomes home to Germany's nuclear research centre, now the Karlsruhe Research Centre.
1962 The oil refineries and oil terminal go into operation.
Sophia Loren in Karlsruhe
Sophia Loren at the Bambi
awards ceremony in 1961
1963 The city's population rises to over 250,000.
1967 Karlsruhe hosts the Federal Garden Show.
1975 The new Badisches Staatstheater at the Ettlinger Tor opens with Mozart's "Magic Flute". The incorporation of seven more villages causes the city's population to rise to 283,000.
1983 Completion of the Europahalle.
1985 Opening of the Congress Centre in the new City Hall at the Festplatz.
1987 The TechnologieRegion Karlsruhe is founded.
1989 The fan-shaped city hosts the World Games for non-Olympic disciplines.
  1995 The American and French armed forces leave the city. A new estate, the Nordstadt estate, is founded on the site of the American compound.
Eröffnung ZKM
Opening of the ZKM
and Gallery in 1997
1996 The "Karlsruhe Treaty" signed by the foreign ministers of Germany, France, Luxembourg and Switzerland in the city concert hall is widely perceived as a milestone in the history of cross-border cooperation at local level. The Canadian air base in Söllingen is converted into Baden Airpark, a civilian airport with commercial space.
1997 The opening of the Centre for Art and Media Technology (ZKM) attracts worldwide attention. The Centre shares a listed industrial building on the Brauerstrasse with the City Gallery.
1998 The federal research minister proclaims Karlsruhe to be a model region for business pioneers. The office of the chief of public prosecutions moves into new premises on the Brauerstrasse. A new culture centre housing the City Museum, Youth Library, film and literature, opens in the Prinz-Max-Palais. To mark Bambi's 50th anniversary, the awards ceremony is once again held in Karlsruhe.
1999 1999 The city council paves the way for a new trade fair on the site of the airfield in Karlsruhe-Forchheim. A new park and housing estate with homes for 6,000 people is built on an old rail freight depot in the south-east.

Karlsruhe - a young city in the heart of Europe· The planning spirit which gave the city its face· From the seat of a court to a modern city
The cradle of democracy and seat of justice· A pioneer in science and research · Technology - the driving force behind business
It's always holiday time in Karlsruhe · Art combines the historical with the modern· Together with our partners into a European future
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Presse- und Informationsamt -BS-